Morphological classification of dog breeds
Braccoid type: prismatic head, with muzzle with parallel lateral faces, slightly marked nose-frontal jump; large, flat ears on the cheeks; abundant upper lips covering the lower profile of the jaw. Group representatives are: Italian Bracco, Dalmata, Setter, Retrievers, Cocker, etc.
Lupoid type: pyramid-shaped head; erect and triangular ears; muzzle elongated and in a 1: 1 ratio with the skull; small, tight upper lips; toothing with scissor bite. Group representatives are: German Shepherd, Belgian Shepherd, Chow Chow, Fox terrier, etc.
Molossian type: round, voluminous head; rather small ears; muzzle shorter than the skull; abundant lips; teeth with pincer or prognata closure. Group representatives are: Neapolitan Mastiff, Boxer, Newfoundland Dog, English Bulldog, Great Dane, etc.
Graioid type: narrow, elongated cone-shaped head; small ears and brought back; length ratio of muzzle to skull 1: 1; stretched lips; toothing with scissor bite. Representatives of this Group are: (Greyhounds) Whippet, Borzoi, Saluki, Italian Greyhound, etc.
Bassottoid type: Anacolimorphic subjects.
Volpinoid type: representatives of this Group are: Volpini and Piccoli Spitz.
Classification in relation to dynamics (“Fogliata”)
There are two types: types with large extension of contraction (eg Greyhounds and all the gallopers), and types with intensity of contraction. The former are types of speed and the others, such as the Mastiff or Bulldog, are types of strength.
Classification based on diametric proportions and biometric and constitutional relationships
Constitution is the most important element of typological determinism.
There are the following types:
Mediolineo and Mesomorfo = Boxer, Pointer, Schnauzer, etc.
Longilineo and Dolicomorfo = Greyhound, Italian Hound, Borzoi, etc.
Brevilineo and Brachimorfo = Neapolitan Mastiff, Pug, Bulldog, Dogue de Bordeaux, etc.
Classification based on the detectable relationship between construction and functional aptitude ("Barbers")
Long-distance resistant gallopers: they are dogs that show a square construction (height of the withers equal to the length of the trunk, measured from the tip of the shoulder or center of the shoulder-humeral joint, up to the ischial tuberosity), rather long neck (with the head constitutes the cephalo-cervical balancer, indispensable rebalancer for the displacements of the center of gravity during the gallop); horizontal rump, high gravitational line (it is the one that connects the center of gravity to the ground; therefore long limbs); large capacity chest but not excessively circled. (Pointer, Boxer, Segugi, Dobermann).
Very fast gallopers over a short distance: this type is well expressed by all Greyhounds; long limbs; long and muscular neck; square construction; small head; very capable but rather tight chest; retracted abdomen, defined as "hocked".
Trotters: (types of resistance) designed to cover long distances at moderate speed (trot) for very long times. Rectangular construction; oblique neck; inclined shoulder and croup; rather closed joint corners with long tibia; chest with good three-dimensional development; long and flexed metacarpals. The German Shepherd is perfect representative of this.
Classification based on the top profile of the head ("Solaro")
It is a classification based on the relationship between the craniofacial axes of the head.
Three different forms are thus identified:
Parallel Profile - e.g. Setter, Fox Terrier, Barboni, Neapolitan Mastiff, German Shepherd.
Converging Profile - e.g. Pointer, Boxer, San Bernardo.
Divergent Profile - e.g. Italian Bracco, Segugi, Basset Hound.
Ortoid, Concavilineo and Cirtoide respectively. The behavior of the upper cranio-facial longitudinal axes is the most important data for determining the character of the head.
curated by Vinattieri Federico - www.difossombrone.it
Basset-Hound (website photo)
Bracco Italiano (photo website)